The "George Washington" became the first steamship to navigate the St. Johns River in May 1829.

President Andrew Jackson passed the Indian Removal Act on May 26, 1830.

In 1832, James Gadsden held negotiations at Payne's Landing with leaders of the Seminole Tribe. Gadsden was attempting to move the Seminoles from Florida.

Trinity Parish Church was established in St. Augustine in 1821 and is the oldest Protestant Church in the state of Florida. The first building was begun in the 1830s and was made of coquina.

Repairs to the St. Augustine Sea Wall began in 1835 by the United States Government. This project complemented the rehabilitation of Fort Marion, begun around the same time.

Osceola, along with 71 warriors, 16 women, and 4 Black Seminoles, were captured on October 20, 1837.

Florida became the 27th state in the United States of America on March 3, 1845. The first governor was William D. Moseley and David Levy Yulee became Florida's first senator.

Father Felix Varela, orphaned in Cuba at the age of six, was sent to live in St. Augustine with his grandfather, a brevet colonel.

The Third Seminole War broke out in late 1855. Chief Billy Bowlegs had remained in the Everglades with around 300 Seminoles.

Augustin Verot was appointed Vicar Apostolic of Florida in December, 1857. A man of deep faith, he was dedicated to education as well.

Delegates from across Florida gathered in Tallahassee in January 1861 to discuss the seccession of Florida from the Union.

Union marines and sailors took Confederate-held St. Augustine on March 11, 1862. The Confederate troops, called the "St.

The African-American people of St. Augustine gathered to hear the reading of Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, issued on January 1, 1863.

Florida's largest battle during the Civil War occurred at Olustee station, near present day Lake City on February 20, 1864.

General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant on April 4, 1865, officially marking the end of the American Civil War. News of the Confederate surrender spread throughout the nation.

Bishop Verot traveled to his homeland in France in 1866. He visited the Sisters of St.

Pope Pius IX created the Diocese of St. Augustine on March 11, 1870, and named Father Augustin Verot its first Bishop. Verot was from France and was part of the Society of St.

John and Francis Wilson started the Free Public Library Association in 1874. It was first housed at the Government House.

As settlers expanded into the Great Plains, conflicts with the Kiowa, Comanche, Cheyenne, and Arapaho Tribes increased. President Grant sent Lt. Richard Pratt to capture the tribal leaders.

Construction of the St. Augustine Lighthouse was completed in 1879; replacing the earlier Spanish Lighthouse built in 1693.